- Thies, Wallace J. 1987. "Alliances and Collective Goods: A Reappraisal." Journal of Conflict Resolution 31: 298-332.
Thies (1987) examined a host of pre-World War II alliances that depended on conventional armaments producing deterrence as well as impure public benefits such as damage-limiting protection in times of conflict. Based on a visual examination of some income and military spending data, Thies (1987) concluded that most of these alliances demonstrated behavior more in keeping with the joint product model for which allies are motivated by private excludable defense benefits.
From: Conybeare, John A. C., and Todd Sandler. 1990. "The Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance 1880-1914: A Collective Goods Approach." American Political Science Review 84: 1197-1206.